Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA)The Radiant Beacon of Early Islam

Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA)The Radiant Beacon of Early Islam

Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA)The Radiant Beacon of Early Islam

# History of Islam: The Era of Caliphate of Abu Bakr (RA), Episode: (01)

**Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA):**

## Initial Circumstances:

Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) belonged to the tribe of Banu Taim bin Murrah bin Ka’b. His lineage traces back to the eighth ancestor, Murrah, who met Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in Mecca. The detailed lineage is as follows:

– Kilaab, Qusayy, Abd Manaf, Hashim, Abdul Muttalib, Abdullah, Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).

– Murrah, Taim, Sa’d, Ka’b, Amr, ‘Amir, Uthman Abu Quhafa, Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA).

All tribes residing in Mecca were assigned various duties related to the Kaaba. The responsibilities of Banu Abd Manaf included providing water for the pilgrims and arranging for their comfort, while Banu Abd al-Dar was responsible for the defense of Mecca during wars. The duty of announcing the Hajj and managing the treasury of Mecca was allocated to Banu Asad. The leadership of the troops was in the hands of Banu Makhzum, and the responsibility of collecting blood money and reconciling disputes was assigned to Banu Taim bin Murrah. When Abu Bakr (RA) came of age, these duties were entrusted to him. All cases related to blood money were presented before him, and his decisions had to be accepted by the Quraysh. All the wealth related to blood money was also in his possession. If any wealth was collected by someone other than him, the Quraysh would not accept it.

The qualities attributed to Banu Taim in the books were not significantly different from those of other tribes. They possessed qualities such as bravery, generosity, hospitality, and protection of neighbors, which were prevalent among other Arab tribes and were also present in Banu Taim.

## Name, Titles, and Honorifics:

The name of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) was Abdullah, and his title was Abu Bakr. His father’s title was Abu Quhafa, and his name was Uthman bin ‘Amir. His mother’s title was Umm al-Khair, and her name was Salma bint Sakhr bin ‘Amir.

Some books mention that before embracing Islam, Abu Bakr (RA) was named Abdul Ka’bah. However, after accepting Islam, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) changed this name to Abdullah. According to some narrations, he was also called Atiq. The reason for this was that his mother’s sons did not survive, so she vowed that if her son were born alive and survived, she would name him Abdul Ka’bah and dedicate him to the service of the Kaaba. Consequently, when Abu Bakr (RA) was born, his name was kept Abdul Ka’bah. As he grew up, he became known as Atiq (the freed slave) because he had been freed from death. Some narrators say that the title Atiq was given to him because he was extremely fair-skinned. It is mentioned in narrations that some people asked his daughter, Hazrat Aisha (RA), why her father was called Atiq. She replied:

“Once the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) looked at him and said: ‘This is Atiq (the freed one) of Allah from the Fire.'”

Another narration states that once Abu Bakr (RA) was with some people serving the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), and upon seeing him, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Whoever wants to see a man freed from the Fire, should look at Abu Bakr.”

Abu Bakr (RA) was known by this title throughout his life, but the exact reason for this title is not known. Historians who came later write that this title was given to him because he was the first to accept Islam.

## Childhood and Youth:

Abu Bakr (RA) spent his childhood playing in the streets of Mecca with other children of his age. When he reached adulthood, he married Qutaylah bint Abdul Uzza, and they had two children, Abdullah and Asma. Asma later became known as Zat an-Nitaqain. After the death of Qutaylah, he married Umm Ruman bint Amir bin Uwaymir, and they had two children, Abdur-Rahman and Aisha (RA). After that, upon arriving in Medina, he married Habibah bint Kharijah, then Asma bint Umays, from whom Muhammad was born.

Historians mention another reason for him being famous by this title, that is, in Arabic, a young camel is called Bakr. Since he was very interested in and knowledgeable about camels and their treatment, people started calling him Abu Bakr, which means the father of camels.

## Profession, Appearance, and Character:

The entire Quraysh tribe was involved in trade, and every individual was engaged in this profession. Abu Bakr (RA) also started his career in the textile trade, where he achieved extraordinary success. He quickly rose to become one of the most successful merchants in Mecca. His success in trade was attributed not only to his business acumen but also to his exceptional character traits.

He had a fair complexion, a lean body, a sparse beard, a radiant face, bright eyes, and a broad forehead. He possessed the best character, was compassionate, and had a gentle disposition. In terms of intellect, foresight, and elevated thinking, very few people in Mecca were on par with him. Where intelligence and wisdom often lead a person astray, he was blessed with a pure heart by Allah, which prevented him from adopting the misguided beliefs prevalent among his people and abstaining from alcohol in both pre-Islamic and Islamic eras. Although the people of Mecca were not only accustomed to alcohol but also fond of it, Abu Bakr (RA) never tasted it. Ibn Hisham writes about his character in his biography:

“Abu Bakr! He was a beloved of hearts among his people, very knowledgeable about genealogy, and remembered the lineage of all the families of Mecca. In every household of the tribe, he was regarded with great respect and admiration due to his excellent moral character and noble conduct. People had boundless love for him because of his virtues.”

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