Battle of Gaugamela Part 2
Thus there were gaps in the Greek ranks. As soon as the chariots entered these spaces, the archers among the Greeks on foot showered them with arrows. In the same way, the soldiers standing on both sides of the open spaces thrust their long spears into the bodies of the horses and soldiers. Several soldiers drove their spears into the wheels of the chariots and overturned them. Soon most of the chariots were overturned, their horses and soldiers were either killed or captured by the Greeks.
Thus, the most dangerous weapon of the Iranians failed miserably. After the chariots, the second most dangerous weapon of the Iranians was the elephant. But there is no mention in history that elephants attacked the Greek army. It is only shown in some paintings. It is also possible that the elephants were removed from the battlefield at some point and sent back to the Iranian camp. However, after the threat of chariots and elephants was over, the war intensified.
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The Iranian cavalry attacked the left wing cavalry of the Greek army. On the other hand, the right wing of the Iranian center army also advanced and broke into a part of the Greek center along with all the cavalry of the center. Meanwhile, the other Greek center, which had not yet been attacked, broke into the rest of the Iranian center in front of it, which was still holding its position. Alexander the Great was watching this whole scene from the time. By this time they had reached the end of the battlefield where the hills started.
There was no further way forward. At that time the Afghan cavalry attacked them. Alexander the Great fought these horsemen for some time, but after that he withdrew with some cavalry. While the rest of his force kept the Afghan cavalry busy, the few troops he had separated from the rest of the force attacked the main Iranian army where Darius III was stationed. Part of his infantry was already fighting the Iranian center there, and Alexander the Great attacked the center from the right.
Now Greek infantry from one side and cavalry from the other side were attacking the Iranian army. The Iranian army was gradually encircling them. The Greek forces continued to push the Iranian army back so far that the battle eventually approached the position of Darius III. Within minutes, the Greek cavalry were very close to Darius III. On the other hand, Bessus, the commander of the Afghans fighting on the right, misjudged that Alexander might turn around and attack his cavalry from the rear.
So he gave the signal to his troops to retreat. Thus the Afghan cavalry fled from the battlefield. But they retreated with great discipline. Not too scattered, but still unable to help the rest of his army on the battlefield. On the other hand, the Greeks were victorious on the right wing, on the other hand, the situation in the center was also in their favor. Darius III was about to be surrounded by the Greeks.
Now was the time when Darius III could turn the tide of the battle by calling his troops in reserve behind. But perhaps these troops were standing far away. The Iranian emperor did not have that much time. The enemy stood at the head. On one occasion, he took out his sword to defend himself so that if the enemy came near, he would fight and give his life. But then at the persuasion of a loyalist or realizing the gravity of the situation himself, he suddenly turned his chariot and once again tried to flee from the battlefield.
According to the Greek historian Plutarch, the corpses were piled up around them so much that the chariot horses became sick and even the charioteers could not control them. The emperor got down from the chariot in panic and escaped on a horse . Then what happened in the Battle of Isis happened. As the news of the emperor’s escape spread, the Iranian army continued to flee.
All the Iranian army in the center fled. But friends, in this entire battle, the Iranian army that was fighting on the left hand side of the Greek force did not retreat. Rather, this army was dominating the Greeks there. They surrounded Alexander’s cavalry on three sides. Even some Indian troops of the army bypassed the Greek force and attacked the Greek camp behind the army. They were looting the camp.
The Greek cavalry commander, seeing the situation deteriorating, sent a horseman to appeal to Alexander the Great for help. Alexander the Great was about to set out in pursuit of the Persian emperor, but just in time his commander sent him a message. Alexander turned his horse and rode out with all his available cavalry to help the trapped Greek army. Before they arrived, however, the Iranians attacking the Greeks had fled.
The Battle of Gogamela was won by Alexander the Great. He had now become the king of the entire Achaemenid Empire. But the defeated Emperor Darius III was not about to give up. He immediately reached the Iraqi city of Erbil, located some distance from Guga Mela. Here many of the fugitives of his army and the commander Basis also met the emperor with his Afghan cavalry. From here the entire force left for Afghanistan to prepare a new army away from Alexander the Great and then return to fight.
When the Iranian emperors were going to Afghanistan, Alexander the Great was still in pursuit of them. But their pursuit was quite slow because Alexander had to conquer the rest of the Iranian cities along the way, otherwise it was possible that the forces would have come out of these cities and chased Eskran-e-Azam , first they entered Babylon, a central city of the Achaemenid Empire. and made it his headquarters.