The Ottoman Empire Formation and Rise

The Ottoman Empire Formation and Rise

It is the Ottoman Empire, the grande empire in human history spread between three continents Europe, Asia and Africa Covering six centuries and two million square kilometers This umpire was once one of the few great umpires in human history This empire was so big that today about 40 countries were once a part of this empire But like other Empire it fell into disrepair and almost completely broke down in the 20th century When and how did this vast umpire come into being? How did this empire control a large part of the world in the next six centuries? Let’s find out

The story of this great umpire begins at the end of the thirteenth century When in 1299 a nomadic Turkish warrior founded a small state or empire in western Anatolia, present-day Turkey This warriors was Ottoman or Osman Ghazi And this empire was named after him as the Ottoman Empire After establishing Umpire, Osman Ghazi controlled more surrounding areas in Anatolia And Empire started to spread further In 1324, the first sultan of the empire, Osman Ghazi, died, and his son Orhan Ghazi took over this position

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He was in a view to extend Empire Two years after assuming the throne in 1326 Orhan Ghazi defeated the Byzantinese and made the city of Bursa a part of the Ottoman Empire In 1335, 9 years after taking control of the city of Bursa, it was also given the status of the imperial capital Even after that, the Ottomans continued to conquer more and they reached Europe from Asia First in Europe in 1354, took control of Gallipoli This area of ​​the Gallipoli Peninsula is today part of modern Turkey

Here the Sea of ​​Marmara meets the adjacent Aegean Sea of ​​the Mediterranean Sea through a strait Orhan Ghazi was succeeded by his son and grandson of first Sultan Osman Ghazi Murad-I, who assumed the throne of the Ottoman Empire During Murad’s reign, the Empire expanded further on the European side During this period, the Ottomans acquired the territory of Adrianople from the Byzantines in 1361 The city is now known as Edirne, and is currently part of modern Turkey

After making the city part of the empire, the Ottomans made it their next capital in 1365 Then in 1371, in the Battle of Maritsa, the Ottoman Empire defeated the Serbian Empire And took control of southern Serbia and Macedonia The conquests of the Ottoman emperors did not stop here Rather, in the subsequent Battle of Kossovo, the rest of the Balkan region came under the influence of the Ottoman Turks In 1389, Bayezid-I became the fourth Ottoman ruler after Murad I

He also continued the expansion policy like his predecessors During his reign, the Ottomans fought the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396 And while defeating the Europeans, they gained control of major and important cities like Nicopolis, Bulgaria, Wallachia It was a decisive battle that proved to be very helpful in strengthening Ottoman control in Europe After that, the empire continued to expand further into the Balkan region And soon took over the entire region In 1402,

There was also a civil war for the position of head of the Ottoman Empire after Bayezid I which continued till 1413 And after winning this war, Mehmed I took the reins of the empire After that, the Empire spread further in Europe and more areas came under the control of the Byzantine Empire The Greek city of Athens was also influenced by the Ottomans Then in 1444, the Ottomans fought the Battle of Varna against a European alliance In this war, the Ottomans won not only Varna and some areas of present-day Romania

But also strengthened its control in Southeast Europe and Anatolia The series of conquests of the Ottomans in Europe did not stop here Rather, in 1453, they also made Constantinople a part of the empire With the conquest of Constantinople, the Eastern Roman Empire, which had lasted for a thousand years, came to an end This victory of the Ottomans during the reign of Sultan Mehmed II proved to be a decisive blow to Christianity After the great conquest of Constantinople,

Sultan became known as Muhammad the Conqueror And he himself preferred the title of Caesar of Rome After conquering the historic city of Constantinople, it was made the capital of the empire in 1453 Then this historic city remained the capital for the next five centuries and till the end of the empire Soon after that, the rest of the territories that were once held by the Roman Byzantine Empire came to the Ottomans In the 1470s, the Ottomans also acquired the territory of Crimea The area has been a disputed area between Russia and Ukraine since 2014 which still continues

Ottomans also continued to expand its influence in Eastern Europe Meanwhile, the Ottomans also controlled some more areas in Eastern Anatolia And the conflict with the other neighboring umpires also continued After the death of Sultan Mehmed II in 1481, his eldest son Bayezid II became the next Sultan During his reign, the Ottomans’ conflict with the Iranian Safavid umpire, another European umpire, continued But the umpire could not achieve any significant victories during this time period

Except for a few small areas Bayezid II was succeeded by his son Selim I who took over the saltanate in 1512 And this was the period when the Ottoman Turks achieved historic victories And the size of the umpire increased enormously Meanwhile, the focus of the Ottomans remained mostly on the Asian and African side In 1514, they defeated the Persian Safavid Empire and reached Tabris But due to some unavoidable reasons they also had to leave some conquered areas here 1516 Ottomans gain control of Algeria,

Setting foot on African soil They defeated the Mamluk Empire in the Ottoman-Mamluk War from 1516 to 1517 And Ottomans made a huge increase in the size of the umpire With this victory, the Ottomans included Levant Region, as well as the lands of Egypt and the Holy Hijaz in their empire And they had now reached Africa as well as Europe and Asia After conquering the Holy Hijaz, Salim I declared himself the first caliph of the Ottoman Empire Selim I died in 1520 After him, Suleiman I or Suleiman the Magnificet became the caliph of the Ottoman Empire

He is also known as The Law Giver During his tenure, new rules were introduced and the umpire reached its peak The Empire further spread across all three continents In Africa, the Ottomans also gained control of the Libyan coast In 1521, the Ottomans gained control of the city of Belgrade on the European side This city is the capital of Serbia today After taking control of Rhode Island Ottomans defeated Kingdom of Hungary in Battle of Mohacs in 1526 and took most of Hungary under their control In 1529,

He also attacked Vienna, but they could not succeed In 1538, the Ottomans strengthened their hold on the Eastern Mediterranean by defeating Holy League navy The Ottomans then conquered more of present-day Romania and Moldavia It should be noted here that the Ottomans could not achieve any further significant success in Europe after this Yes, it is certain that they will get a lot of success in the coming period

But their border was limited to present-day Romania, Hungary and Croatia and some areas However, they controlled some more areas from the Safavid Empire on the Asian side, including Baghdad After the death of Suleiman the Magnificent in 1566 His son Suleiman II assumed the throne of the Ottoman Caliphate In 1571, they acquired the island of Cyprus from the Republic of Venice And made it part of their umpire Meanwhile, the Ottomans also faced defeat from the Holy League in Europe

In 1646 they also acquired the island of Crete from the Republic of Venice In Asia, the Ottomans, while defeating the Safavid Empire, had taken control of the Caspian Sea But in later treaties both the umpires set their own boundaries The coastal areas of the Black Sea were also acquired by the Ottomans during the period 1566-1683 While some conquests were achieved by the Ottomans on the Arab and African lands Thus, by the end of the seventeenth century,

The Ottoman Turkish Empire was at its peak in terms of area Its area was spread over three continents and 2 crore square kilometers Around 40 countries of the present day were part of it When the Ottoman empire was at its height, it was also flourishing in arts, science and architecture During its heyday, the Ottoman Empire greatly promoted Islamic arts, science and architecture Some of the masterpieces of this era still stand in mourning This was the story of how the Ottoman Empire spread over such a large area, and became a great empire

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